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Until We Had Our Accident

 

Article appeared in Flying Magazine January, 2014 by John King

Every pilot intuitively knows that flying is an intense mixture of uncommon rewards offset with exposure to risk. After all, while airplanes provide some of the greatest pleasures in our lifetimes, they do have to reach a lethal speed just to get airborne, and then they fly at thousands of feet above the ground. Balancing the risk/reward equation is something my wife and flying partner, Martha, and I have been thinking about ever since we had our airplane accident.

Flying had us hooked right from the very start. As soon as the opportunity came we learned to fly together, and enjoyed every minute of it. It didn’t take long before we started exploring the country in our airplane. The day after we got our certificates we took off in our Cherokee 140 from our home field in Indianapolis on a flying trip that took us to Arkansas and Florida, and before we had had our certificates for even a week we made our first international trip, to Grand Bahama.

Instead of returning to Indianapolis when we got to northern Florida, we turned left and went to California. We explored the length of the state looking for a place we might want to move to. We were having a grand time. Flying had everything we loved—learning, seeing the world from above, and an unparalleled ability to explore.

At that time you had to have 200 hours of flight time to get an instrument rating, and at hour 201 we each went for our instrument check-rides. Then, at just under 300 hours, we had a checkout of less than a half-hour in the Piper Comanche we had just purchased, and took off the next day from California to fly in one day to Indianapolis. The instrument ratings and the more capable Comanche expanded our ability to travel in our own airplane, and we took full advantage of it. We used our airplane for personal transportation for our business, and manufactured opportunities to fly every way we could imagine, even when flying on the airlines made far more sense.

But there was a problem. We were scaring everyone who cared about us, and even some who had never met us before. People felt that we thought we were invulnerable, and that we took too many risks. People were concerned that we were overconfident and overly optimistic. It worried people that were in so much of a hurry, and too quickly advanced to a higher performance aircraft. It was clear that we were the kind of pilots who scared people.

And they were right. On that very first long trip we had numerous close calls. On the way to Arkansas, due to a fresh covering of snow we couldn’t find the grass strip we had chosen as a fuel stop, and got low on fuel looking for an alternate.

In northwestern Florida we got caught by low ceilings and visibilities and circled our destination airport in the mist multiple times before getting sufficiently lined up with a runway to be able to land on it. In Louisiana as VFR-only pilots we climbed through a hole in a forming cloud layer, which resulted in getting trapped on top over an area of low ceilings and visibilities. We absolutely terrified the Flight Service Station operator when we called to find the nearest hole so we could get down and land.

On the way to Houston we sorted our way through gathering cumulus clouds. By the time we reached the runway we were so exhausted that when, just before touchdown, we saw the wrong number painted on it, we landed on it anyway. In Tucson, we made our first ever night landing after having flown over the mountains in the dark.

The saga continued everywhere we went.

When concerned pilots displayed the courage to confront us regarding our flying habits, we didn’t take it well. In Albuquerque, as we were preparing our Comanche for a night flight over the mountains to California in a snowstorm with snowflakes the size of dimes, a pilot kept questioning us about why we didn’t wait until morning. Our impatient reaction was that we knew what we were doing.

Maybe our impatient reaction wasn’t all our fault. Pilots and even most flight instructors have not had training in how to effectively counsel pilots who scare them. There was an implication that we had no judgment, and lacked good decision-making skills. We tended to resent that. After all, we owned our own business and were doing well at it. In our minds, we clearly had good judgment and decision-making skills.

In any event the counseling certainly didn’t work. We continued to have close call after close call with no change in our behavior—until we had our inevitable accident. We had, after a generator failure, elected to continue flying on top of an overcast. When we arrived at our destination, we had a completely discharged battery. In our first emergency descent through the icy clouds we never saw the ground, and climbed back to 10,000 feet to get on top again.

Back on top, after an anxious discussion about alternatives we decided our only option was another trip back down through the ice. Just seconds after seeing the ground in the dusk, we landed in a cornfield. The unsecured luggage and tool kit behind us came forward, sprayed Martha’s blood all over the cabin, and pinned us against the panel. This earned Martha a trip to the emergency room.

This changed everything for us. We completely transformed our attitudes about risk management. You might say we became born-again pilots. But even though our attitudes had changed, we didn’t really know what to do about it until we began to see our old behavior in other people who mattered to us.

By now we were teaching two-day ground schools for a living. We traveled in a circuit, and generally returned to the same city every two months. We taught relatively large numbers of learning pilots, and we became very impressed with, and fond of, those who choose to learn to fly.

Tragically it was not uncommon for us to return to a city in two months, and learn that one of those spectacular people we had just taught was already dead from an airplane crash. I can name dozens. These were not foolhardy people. Like us, they just didn’t understand the risks they were taking. In each case the death was considered a local tragedy. The people who have the competence, determination, and perseverance to learn to fly make fabulous obituaries.

The tipping point came when I had a student in my class who was both a physician and an Episcopalian priest. Needless to say he was a pillar in his community. What concerned me about this person was that he, like I had been, was too impatient. During the class I had become concerned that his impatience could be a serious risk factor when it came to his flying.

In those days the FAA had to administer the knowledge tests. So I suggested to the FAA inspector that he needed to talk to the doctor. The inspector said to me, “John, I can’t just pick someone out of your class and give him a lecture because you told me to.” He said, “Why don’t you talk to him?” I said, “I’m just a travelling ground instructor. He won’t listen to me.” Neither one of us talked to him.

A couple of weeks later the phone rang. It was the FAA inspector. He said, “John, I thought you’d want to know. The doctor is dead”. He had gotten into low ceilings and visibilities on a solo cross-country and run into the mountains.

This put me into a blue funk. I thought about quitting teaching flying because I didn’t want to be a part of an activity that resulted in such superb people coming to grief. Finally someone said to me, “John, why don’t you just resolve to do everything you can to make a positive difference?”

Martha and I love flying just as much as we ever did, maybe even more. We have flown continuously since we started in 1969, and still use general aviation almost exclusively for our personal transportation. Flying uses almost every aptitude a human being has—physical skill, emotional control, 3-dimensional problem-solving, and yes, decision-making. I think the fact that flying uses so many aptitudes is one of the reasons it is so much fun.

But our unusual view of aviation has made us extremely aware that there also are risks associated with flying. We know they can be managed, and doing so does not in the least have to take the fun out of flying.

As we learned from the well-intentioned folks who were so unsuccessful in getting us to change our behaviors, those advocating risk management do have to use a vocabulary that is both insightful and acceptable to the listeners. Balancing risk and reward is certainly not an easy subject, but is the subject about which we hope to have a continuing dialog with you in this column.

21 Comments

  1. George S

    thanks, John. I think that not enough pilots would assess where they went wrong, much less tell everybody about it. The best tough lessons are those you can learn from others, and not through bad personal experience.

  2. Richard Weil

    There’s a corollary here: watch your decision making after a long flying career, it can begin to deteriorate. I’ve been licensed for almost half a century, seriously in the hobby for the last 20. But I was concerned about skills slipping as I just wasn’t flying a lot. Took an intensive class (actually raising a glider rating from private to commercial) and that helped, but after 5 more years the same pattern was repeating. I was considering whether it was time to call it quits. Then I brought a sailplane in very low–didn’t stretch the glide!–and that was scary. After that heart issues began to appear and interfere with sleep (I think the start of this is why I lost it in the pattern for a few seconds). That’s now well controlled by medication which would cost thousands for FAA approval on an individual basis. So that landing was a wake up call and barring major changes I’d say it’s time to hang it up. Even without such a dramatic event there is a point where people should rethink how they fly, and not just new pilots either.

  3. Dr. John A. Kolmos

    Hi John and Martha

    I watched your flashcards video. What took me back was the difference in how you both looked when I started flying over 30 years ago and now; by the way, same for me! All kidding aside, you changed my life and have accumulated all your training. All VHS’s (remember those?) to CDs now the internet courses. I thank you for all you shared and taught our aviation community. God Bless and be safe.

  4. Terry Ketron

    After getting my Private Pilot license using a book and audio tapes from a Colorado based company called ATC (a very enjoyable course w/ an excellent instructor on the audio tapes) King Schools began to offer the video tapes. I did my Instrument Rating study w/ King Schools. A few years after that I moved to Arizona and, in 2002, went for my Commercial Pilot License, again w/ King Schools. It was pretty easy and I went for my Instructor Rating w/ King Schools and then my Instrument Instructor Rating w/ King. My wife referred to Martha King as “your other woman” because I spent so much time with her. I passed every King prepared written test w/ a 90 or above. I am in the process now of renewing my Instructor Certificate.
    I really stress the dangers of OVERconfidence to new pilots that I teach. At our fight school we had a “wonder student”, a very bright and capable and very likeable young man of 18-19 years of age. He zoomed through his ratings to Commercial Pilot. He then left for his home state where he obtained his CFI rating. A couple of months after that he and his father departed on a flight in a C-150 and encountered cold, bad weather. Instead of doing the recommended 180 degree turn he continued on. Ice got him and both occupants died. He wasn’t my student, but I was left w/ a sick, empty feeling for days’ and I felt great sorrow for his Instructor and friend, and for his family.
    All that said, ADM (aeronautical decision making) cannot be OVERstressed. Strapping into an aircraft does not make one invulnerable. Judgement is a difficult lesson to learn in a year of instruction. Everyone should remember the mantra, “THERE ARE OLD PILOTS, AND THERE ARE BOLD PILOTS, BUT THERE ARE NO OLD BOLD PILOTS.” Measure your skills w/ modesty.

  5. Gary Vosters

    Your risk management classes and information undoubtedly kept scores of people “out of the trees” . I am certainly among them. The laws of physics apply to everyone equally….Your professional, and honest approach has opened the eyes of many who would not know this otherwise. Great article, thanks for sharing.

  6. David Smith

    As a recent private pilot and now an IFR student and by occupation an Information Security Officer I know how to manage risk – do it everyday. Managing risk involves understanding what could happen and then determine the likelihood it might happen, impact should it happen and then applying a mitigation strategy and response. Anytime a condition may exceed your personal minimums it introduces risk. This is a real life experience that happened to me as a student pilot on my long cross country that happened at the very end. After a 3 hour cross country solo the winds at my home airport had changed. The cross wind was now above my personal limits of 5kts. Landing on runway 01 and winds out of the west with some gusts. My Inexperience did not account for a tailwind that would blow me beyond the turn to final. Seeing the runway now 120 degrees to my left I made a steeper turn than usual to get back on final. I did land okay and was thankful to be on the ground. So applying my own occupation I would now say on a longer flight there is a risk that weather may change. How would I have mitigated this risk? Risk: potential cross wind on return. Impact: changes to traffic pattern wind correction and missed approach and a very steep turn to final could stall the airplane and lead to death. Risk Response: Accept, Avoid, Transfer, Mitigate. If mitigation: watch ground speed on base, consider flying 30 degrees more on base and adjust to final, and finally know your best option may be to go around.

  7. Randall Wilder

    Very good article I did not have any close calls like you did except I had to beat a thunderstorm to my destination my friends never knew I was doing this and I did beat the storm but after that I got a new respect for the weather!

  8. Brian Livingston

    Hi, John and Martha

    I’m in the middle of your FIRC course and will say I’m finding it enjoyable, well put together and very well intentioned. You both have made a huge impact on me in my flying. I started my private training by taking the King Schools Private Pilot Course. I then went to a big box flight school to accelerate my training and since I’ve gotten all my CFI ratings I’ve been working at little mom and pop flight schools. This is my second FIRC and though COVID has slowed things down a bit I’ve been instructing full time for about four years.

    I have to admit that I was appalled to read about some of the poor decisions the two of you made when you were new pilots. Completely unacceptable and forgive me for being dark and curt but you guys really don’t deserve to have gotten as lucky as you did. OK annoyed instructor hat off, and teacher hat back on…It seems the big problem with flying is us as human beings and our failure to acknowledge that human beings are inherently unequipped to fly safely. We get distracted, we fail to give risks proper weight, and we are progressively less physically equipped to fly the plane as the flight goes on. The list of our deficiencies as humans could go on and on, but the “big lie” is still something the public is allowed to believe and students come to me thinking that flying can be done safely. Flying is a ticking time bomb. Human beings make mistakes and it’s luck and circumstances that dictate whether we go “boom” or not. We can reduce accidents and train pilots better (public opinion and airplane manufacturer lobbyists permitting), but in 100 years people are going to look at the age when we let everyday people fly as the “wild west” days. I truly believe that flying will become prohibitively expensive for 99.9% of people in my life time and its already a wealthy persons hobby.

    I love flying and professional flying is an essential part of our economies worldwide, but do you think GA has a long term future? Do you think the plateau in reduction of GA accidents is something that can be cut down to commercial accident levels or are we simply trying to shave a little off the top of these numbers? Can you get a doctor to behave like an ATP?

    On a separate question; Are we asking our CFI’s to do a lot considering what we’re paying them? Many CFI’s make minimum wage and have no benefits and we expect them to pay their dues before they get a higher level job. Could we reduce GA accidents if we pay better attention to the stresses CFI’s are under at their jobs? With SBT, the cost of flying is going up and it seems that the more money you spend on flight training the better the pilot.

    Sorry for the dissertation
    Brian Livingston CFI, CFII, MEI

    • Pilot One

      Brian, your comments are very thoughtful and provocative.

      You are right. Martha and I have been luckier than we deserve, and luckier than anyone should expect.

      We hope we have passed along some insights to fellow pilots along the years.

      One of the observations we have made is that even people at the very highest levels are imperfect. Plus, people at those very highest levels are especially susceptible to the factor that induces people to do a poor job of risk management—the reluctance to give up on a goal. That is the factor that induces pilots to keep on going in the face of mounting risk.

      We encourage pilots planning a flight to develop strategies to help them manage their own goal orientation—something in much of life that is a wonderful attribute, but in flying is a risk factor on its own.

      Regarding your observations on the economic future of flying—it is a deeply rewarding and beneficial activity. We believe that people will continue to be willing to put the profound commitment in that the activity requires, and will be better for it.

      Brian, thanks for the good will your comments represent. We hope that you continue to find flying deeply rewarding.

      John and Martha–

      • E. Taylor

        As a new private pilot 3 years ago and an electrical contractor for 31 years I have known few great role models in any industry that do not have a story of some degree or other that has molded them into who and what they are today. John and Martha, thank you for your mistakes over 50 years ago that are still saving lives today!!!

  9. David

    Very nice article John,

    As a relatively new CFI, I enjoy reading the stories and experiences (some very risky) of your past and present. You both are an inspiration to so many. God Bless the both of you.

  10. Steven E Drew Sr

    John,

    Thank you for sharing your scary past. Glad you lived to to talk about it!

    I started my aviation career in the US Navy as an aircraft mechanic. Then got my pilot training (Private) at a Navy Flying Club in 2.5 months. Within the following two years I was a Flight Engineer on a P3 Orion Sub Hunter aircraft at the tender age of 21.

    I am so thankful that in the military you have strict guide lines to follow. In my civilian flying however I have to admit that I have some “never gonna do that again” stories!

    We all can help each other learn better.

    ATP, CFII SEL/MEL, Seaplane, FE, A&P, Drone Pilot

  11. Gary ATP CFII MEI B737 Captain

    Very insightful article and a very moving “share”.

    The transition to low performance flying can be equally scary as your transition upward. 25 years ago, I flew from San Francisco to Boston to Key West with my wife and 1.5 y.o. daughter in our Piper Warrior after I separated from the Air Force. I can’t imagine having the cockpit splashed with their blood, but can easily see how that event changed your attitudes.

    When I was a full-time CFI, I always incorporated risk management and decision making. Now as a Major Airline Captain, I still teach them to Co-Pilots who sometimes forget we have 200 people trusting us on board.

    I love your CFI Refresher course and recommend it to all. God bless you two.

  12. Dr. Andrew DeFeo, CFII

    An outstanding and timeless article. As a CFII, check airman at a Part 141 flight school andDPE, I too have met my share of pilots who are no longer with us because they did not manage risks well or “normalized their deviance.” We meet these individuals and wonder how we can help them to become safer pilots. Yet, we sometimes (but not always) feel that we are powerless to make a difference. Your article creates a calling to a duty and responsibility all instructors have to help pilots understand risks and to mitigate them through continued education, and modeling by pilot leaders.

  13. William McAdams, CFI, CFII ATP

    After 40 years of flying, and having made many of the mistrakes that you mentioned, I am humbled to know that I am not the only one who had to learn from their mistakes. I don’t know how we lived through them all, but somehow, we did. Hopefully future students will not have to do the same.

  14. LOU

    Hi John,

    Nicely constructed view of what you and Martha experienced over the years flying together over the USA. There was one sentence that grabbed my attention, it was……”Like us, they just didn’t understand the risks they were taking.”

    I am CFI of 4 years now, loving every second of teaching folks in South Jersey, promise to add to my teachings a question addressed to my students………….Do you as my student understand the risks of today’s flight and the consequences if we don’t reduce them ???

    Sincerely,

    Lou DiVentura CFI
    http://www.CFILOU.info

  15. Pete Sachs

    We just bought a Cessna 206 and plan on flying it out west. My wife and I live on an airport in the Chicago area. I also have a Cessna 140A. The 140 is really a one place airplane for me to fly around when Powered Paragliding is to cold out. The wife and I owned a Skyhawk and flew out west before many many years ago. I started to teach her back then. Now our son is 18 years old ( wish he would take interest in flying) and the wife is taking lessons with another CFI ( maybe she wouldn’t listen to me.to be able to land our plane in the event of me becoming incapacitated .
    Anyway my CFII EXPIRES next month and instead of renewal by FSDO I am taking your course to
    Learn something new and to review. So far so good. Thanks for all you folks do

    Pete. ATP CFIMEI. DC8,737,DA2000,Ce560 rotorcraft, now fractional pilot

  16. Fran Turner

    I’m a 60-year-old grandmother who is not a pilot, nor do I remotely have anything to do with flying (except the rare occasion I’ve been a commercial jet passenger). But I am totally infatuated with airplanes, and follow any and all things aviation on the Internet (including airport webcams, YouTube, and blogs)! I just wanted to comment that I love watching your presentations on YouTube and at least one onsite FAA seminar. Thanks for adding to one old lady armchair pilot’s enjoyment of the skies.

  17. Regina Larson

    Bravo!!! You and Martha made an incredible difference in my life. I am a huge fan of both of you and love your videos! Long and prosperous life to both of you. God bless.

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